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NDT TESTING TIPS FROM NDTECH - NEWSLETTER #19 - March 2001



1. Detection of Defects in Airport Pavements Using Infrared Thermography


2. NDT In Civil Engineering: Concrete Bridge Decks


3. Nonintrusive Method for Inspecting Turbomachinery


4. Sensor Remotely Reports "Cure" of Concrete


5. NDT Info


6. Publications


7. Meetings/Symposia/Conferences



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The NDTech Newsletter is published periodically by NDTech, a consulting firm offering nondestructive testing, services, and instruments. This newsletter is distributed by e-mail and covers brief descriptions of some useful but less publicized radiographic, ultrasonic, penetrant, magnetic particle, and other NDT methods. You will automatically receive the newsletter, at no cost. If you wish to be removed from the NDTech Newsletter, simply reply remove with "Remove" as the subject.



To find out more about NDTech and its nondestructive testing consulting services and instrumentation, visit the NDTech website at www.ndtech.net


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1. Detection of Defects of Airport Pavements Using Infrared Thermography



By A. Moropoulou, N. P. Avdelidis, M. Koui


From CSNDT Journal Vol. 21, No. 5, Sept./Oct. 2000



In this research work, an investigation of asphalt pavements situated at the International Airport of Athens in Greece is performed. Infrared thermography is introduced with the intention of supplying prompt and accurate condition evaluation of airport pavements. The technique is used effectively in the detection of cracks, surface voids and other anomalies appearing from the ageing of airport pavement materials. The results of this investigation have led to the suggestion of a predictive monitoring technique for the inspection and appropriateness of efficient engineering structures.



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2. NDT In Civil Engineering: Concrete Bridge Decks



By J. Phazi


From CSNDT Journal Vol. 21, No. 5, Sept./Oct. 2000



This paper presents a practical application of IR thermography and ground penetrating radar to successfully evaluate deterioration of concrete bridge decks.



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3. Nonintrusive Method for Inspecting Turbomachinery



From http://www.isa.org/journals, Feb.15, 2001



This nondestructive method allows rapid, in situ visualization of potentially damaging vibrational modes; detection of actual damage in metals and composites; nondestructive inspection of machinery components; and comparisons between designed and measured vibrational mode shapes.



Holography is the recording of the object wave formed by interference of two light beams; a coherent beam is split into two component beams, one of which irradiates the object as the second irradiates a recording medium. The disturbance of the first wave by the object forms the wave that interferes with the second beam, or reference wave, at the recording medium. The resulting pattern is a hologram of the object. Glenn researchers are using and improving a technique called electronic holography, which replaced the old photographic method of time-averaged holography in rapid identification of a structure's vibrational modes. Electronic holography is a three-dimensional digital imaging method that produces large, interactive, color holographs that exhibit the depth and realism of physical objects.



Engineers currently use finite element modeling of the structure and optical modeling of the electronic holography process to predict the characteristic holograms of vibrating structures.



According to a technical note (www.lerc.nasa.gov/WWW/RT1997/5000/5520decker.htm) prepared by Dr. Arthur J. Decker of NASA, "A model of electronic time-averaged holography is used to transform the displacement distributions into finite-element-resolution characteristic fringe patterns. Then, a feed-forward neural network is trained with the fringe-pattern/strain-pattern pairs, and the neural network, electronic holography, and video are implemented on a workstation." These patterns show regions where damage might occur; however, the patterns of bending-induced strain for a vibrating object are much more effective at showing actual damage.



In order to transform characteristic patterns to bending-induced patterns, Glenn researchers are developing artificial intelligence "neural networks." Neural networks are arrays of processors that aim to emulate human reasoning; they simulate learning by trial and error. These neural networks generate models of bending-induced strain or help determine whether a structure's characteristic pattern has changed significantly from that of the original, undamaged structure.



Decker continued, "Now that the neural networks have been tested successfully at 30 frames/sec on undamaged and cracked cantilevers, the electronic holography and neural network processing are being adapted for on-site damage inspection of twisted fan blades and rotor-mounted blades. Our conclusion is that model-trained neural nets are effective when they are trained with good models whose application is well understood."



NASA recently used the neural networks to evaluate an International Space Station cold plate for pressure-cycle-induced damage by comparing the original patterns with current structural patterns. Because this method requires the test engineer's judgment to generate the training set, a proposal has been prepared to develop calibration or optimization techniques to create a more rigorous approach for using the technique.



This technology is currently part of NASA Glenn Research Center's Technology Transfer Program. For more information on this NASA technology, contact Robert Grimes, P.E., MTAC/ISA liaison, (412) 383-2500; fax (412) 383-2595.



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4. Sensor Remotely Reports "Cure" of Concrete


From http://www.isa.org/journals, Feb.15, 2001



A "smart" maturity meter now estimates and signals by phone when newly poured concrete bridge supports, pavements, and highway surfaces have reached the correct hardness and strength, according to engineers at Penn State.



"This method of estimating the strength of concrete can save taxpayer money in reduced cost of quality control and assurance testing," said Dr. Paul Tikalsky, associate professor of civil and environmental engineering and a developer of the prototype.



"In addition, the meter provides information on the status of the actual structure rather than on representative concrete samples, the method most often used today to estimate concrete strength," he said.



Tikalsky and David G. Tepke, a doctoral student at Penn State, developed the meter prototype and accessory technology. The new maturity meter is the result of integrating new digital phone technology with an existing concrete monitoring concept. The concept, Tikalsky said, has been around since the 1940s but has only recently seen use in commercial meters. The Penn State prototype is a next generation meter that the developers estimate will cost less than those currently available. In addition, the meter provides real-time evaluation and quality control information with cellular technology.



Ambient temperature, the heat generated by the chemical reactions in the curing process itself, and the variability in the concrete mixture, in addition to other factors, influence the rate at which concrete structures achieve their intended strength. Currently, when workers pour concrete to create a structure, they make small sample castings for test purposes to represent how the concrete is gaining strength in the actual structure.



The prototype uses the fact that the internal temperature of the concrete can be directly related to the time it takes to mature. Therefore, workers need to make only a minimal number of castings for the Penn State method to be effective. To determine the internal temperature, the prototype uses simple thermocouple technology, the same technology used in a digital thermometer, and then integrates it with a computer program-net-on-a-microchip, along with cell phone technology, to provide a "smart" monitoring component.



In the prototype, sensor wires snake through the concrete forms before pouring the cement. After the cement is in place, the wires connect to the maturity meter, which in turn connects to a digital cell phone. By calling up the phone, the developers can download the digital data and use software they have developed to convert the temperature data into a maturity rating.



Tikalsky said the system monitors the status of a structure remotely and sounds an alert on a pager or phone when the concrete reaches readiness or sounds an alarm if the concrete is in danger of freezing, which causes serious damage to the maturing structure. The Penn State meter should cost about $2,000 when it is commercially available and can substantially reduce the amount of test castings. Since about 200 castings are required for each concrete bridge upright, for example, the potential savings represents a significant part of the quality control and assurance testing budget.



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5. NDT Info


5.1 General and Reviews



NDT for Assessing Concrete Strength


By Ferreira A. P. and Castro P. F.


NDT-CE 2000 (Non-Destructive Testing in Civil Engineering 2000) (Seiken Symposium No.26) Proceedings, Apr. 2000, pp 229-237



Evaluation of the Strength Characteristics of Building Materials


By Shkolnik I. E., Aktan H. M., Wu H. C. and Russell D. A.


NDT-CE 2000 (Non-Destructive Testing in Civil Engineering 2000) (Seiken Symposium No.26) Proceedings, Apr. 2000, pp 245-252



Evaluation of Concrete in Structures with Small Core Specimen


By Kasau Y., Yuasa N., Kunimoto M. and Mano T..


NDT-CE 2000 (Non-Destructive Testing in Civil Engineering 2000) (Seiken Symposium No.26) Proceedings, Apr. 2000, pp 263-272



The Finnish Society for Non-Destructive Testing - Finnish NDT Committee


By Sillanpaa J.


INSIGHT - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring, Vol.42 No.6, Jun. 2000, p 366



 


5.2 Miscelleaneous Techniques



Internal Rotary Inspection System IRIS - tube testing overview


ByPanos C.


Non-Destructive Testing - Australia, Vol.36 No.1, Jan./Feb. 2000, pp12-15



Dielectric Sensors in Composite and Manufacturing


By Strand D. J.


ASNT Spring Conference and 9th Annual Research Symposium abstracts, Mar. 2000, p 68



Portable NDE Scanner for Commercial and Military Jet Engine Inspection


By Stephan R.R., D’Orvilliers A. and Bryson D.


ASNT Spring Conference and 9th Annual Research Symposium abstracts, Mar. 2000, p 69



Automated Chain Drag Inspection of Concrete Bridge Decks


By Costly R. D., Henderson M. E., Dion G. N. and Boudreaux G.


ASNT Spring Conference and 9th Annual Research Symposium abstracts, Mar. 2000, p 74



Roller Search Unit Engineered to Overcome Rail Testing problems


By Martens G. D.


ASNT Spring Conference and 9th Annual Research Symposium abstracts, Mar. 2000, p 77



Measurement of the Moisture and Salt Content of Building Materials


By Leschnik W. and Schlemm U.


NDT-CE 2000 (Non-Destructive Testing in Civil Engineering 2000) (Seiken Symposium No.26) Proceedings, Apr. 2000, pp 209-218



New Test Method for Pullout Strength for the Hardened Concrete Using Post Settled Pullout


By Arazoe M., Ito Y. and Katsuki F.


NDT-CE 2000 (Non-Destructive Testing in Civil Engineering 2000) (Seiken Symposium No.26) Proceedings, Apr. 2000, pp 239-244



A Proposal of Control Method on Shotcrete Strength by Pin Penetration Test Using Air Pressure


By Iwaki K., Hirama A., Mitani K., Kaise S. and Nakagawa K.


NDT-CE 2000 (Non-Destructive Testing in Civil Engineering 2000) (Seiken Symposium No.26) Proceedings, Apr. 2000, pp 253-262



Quantitative Evaluation of Fracture Process in Concrete by the Use of Improved b-Value


By Shiotani T., Yuyama S., Li Z. W. and Ohtsu M.


NDT-CE 2000 (Non-Destructive Testing in Civil Engineering 2000) (Seiken Symposium No.26) Proceedings, Apr. 2000, pp 293-302



 


5.3 Ultrasonic and Acoustic Techniques



Ultrasonic Velocity Measurements for Characterising the Annealing Behaviour of Cold Worked Austenitic Stainless Steel


By Palanichamy P., Vasudevan M., Jayakumar T., Venugopal S. and Raj B.


NDT&E International, Vol.33 No.4, Jun. 2000, pp 253-259



A New Ultrasonic Angle-Beam Technique for Sensitive Evaluation of Closed Cracks


By Ahmed S. R. and Saka M.


NDT&E International, Vol.33 No.4, Jun. 2000, pp 261-271



Experimental Evaluation of Clad Metallic Buffer Rods for High Temperature Ultrasonic Measurements


By Jen C-K, Legoux J-G and Parent L.


NDT&E International, Vol.33 No.3, Apr. 2000, pp 145-153



How the Gas Pipeline Industry Learned to Love Ultrosonics


By Moles M. and Dube N.


CSNDT Journal, Vol.21 No.3, May/Jun. 2000, pp 6-13



Ultrasonic Testing of Bonded Interfaces by Images Techniques


By Ogura Y.


Journal of JSNDI, Vol. 49 No.4, Apr. 2000, pp 224-230 [In Japanese]



A Review of the Acousto-Ultrasonic Method for Assessing the Health of Composite Material Components


By Duke J. C.


ASNT Spring Conference and 9th Annual Research Symposium Abstracts, Mar. 2000, p 62



Considerations in the Ultrasonic Testing of Railroad Wheels


By Sattler F. J.


ASNT Spring Conference and 9th Annual Research Symposium Abstracts, Mar. 2000, p 64



Comparison of Conventional and Immersion Ultrasonic Techniques to Assist Development of Ultrasonic Rail Inspection Models


By Utrata D. and Clark R.


ASNT Spring Conference and 9th Annual Research Symposium Abstracts, Mar. 2000, p 78



 


5.4 Radiography



Digital Radiography - An Emerging Alternative


By Barber G.


Non-Destructive Testing - Australia, Vol. 37 No.2, Mar./Apr. 2000, pp 44-46



 


Radiographic Methods, Part 8. Radioscopy; Reliability in Radiography


By Halmshaw R.


INSIGHT - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring, Vol. 42 No.6, Jun. 2000, pp 397-400



 


5.5 Other Radiation Techniques



Moisture Measurements in Building Materials with Microwaves


By Kaariainen H., Rudolph M., Schaurich D., Tulla K. and Wiggenhauser H.


NDT-CE 2000 (Non-Destructive Testing in Civil Engineering 2000) (Seiken Symposium No.26) proceedings, Apr.2000, pp 199-207



 


5.6 Magnetic



Effects of Stress on MFL Responses from Elongated Corrosion Pits in Pipeline Steel


By Coughlin C. R., Clapham L. and Atherton D. L.


NDT&E International, Vol.33 No.3, Apr. 2000, pp 181-188



Calibration of AC-yoke Magnetisation


By Astrom T.


INSIGHT - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring, Vol. 42 No.6, Jun. 2000, pp 374-377



 


5.7 Thermal and Infra-Red



Monitoring Mechanical Systems Using High Resolution Thermographic Imaging


By Wishaw M. and Coldwell P.


Non-Destructive Testing - Australia, Vol. 37 No.2, Mar./Apr. 2000, pp 38-42



A Thermal Recognition System to Identify Knots in Wood


By Steele P. H. and Patton M. D.


ASNT Spring Conference and 9th Annual Research Symposium Abstracts, Mar. 2000, p 75



Infrared Thermography as an NDT Tool in the Evaluation of Materials and Techniques for the Protection of Historic Monuments


By Moropoulou A., Koui M. and Avdelidis N. P.


INSIGHT - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring, Vol. 42 No.6, Jun. 2000, pp 379-383



 


5.8 Acoustic Emission



Quantitative Diagnosis of Reinforced Concrete Structures by AE-SiGMA Analysis


By Shigeishi M., Yukawa D. and Ohtsu M..


NDT-CE 2000 (Non-Destructive Testing in Civil Engineering 2000) (Seiken Symposium No.26) proceedings, Apr.2000, pp 199-207



 


 


Evaluation of Fatigue Damage in Reinforced Concrete Slab by Acoustic Emission


By Yuyama S., Li Z-W., Yoshizawa M., Tomokiyo T. and Uomoto T.


NDT-CE 2000 (Non-Destructive Testing in Civil Engineering 2000) (Seiken Symposium No.26) proceedings, Apr.2000, pp 283-292



On-Line AE Monitoring of Recovery Boilers


By Sorvari V.


INSIGHT - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring, Vol. 42 No.6, Jun. 2000, pp 377-373



Note: Most papers listed in NDT Info may be obtained via a loan library or direct from Loans Department, British Library Document Supply Center (BLDSC), Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ. Details of BLDSC’s UK and International Services may be obtained from The Director, British Library Document Supply Center. Technical reports are also available from the Loans Department of BLDSC and in the USA from the National Technical Information Service, US Department of Commerce, Springfield, Virginia 22151, USA. For availability of British and foreign standards see Standards News elsewhere in this journal.



 


6. Publications



Common Sense Approach to Thermal Imaging


by Gerald C.Holst


Thorough explanation of heat transfer, with concepts supported by thermograms. Intended for all who work with thermal imaging systems: researchers, system designers, test engineers, sales staff, and military and civilian end users.



This book is available from the International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE) at www.spie.org It was published in April 2000 and has 370 pages. The book is priced at $62.00 for SPIE members, $68.00 for SPIE Technical Group members, and $75.00 for nonmembers.



 


Nondestructive Evaluation of Aging Materials and Composites IV,


proceedings of SPIE, Volume 3993


By George Y. Baaklini, Carol A. Lebowitz, and Eric S. Boltz.


Thirty papers are presented in this volume covering such topics as thermography, ultrasonic NDE of aerospace composites, acoustic emission signals of damaged composites, real-time acoustic emission monitoring, laser interferometry, quantifying residual stresses, fiber-optic acoustic emission sensors, real-time phase-stepped shearing speckle interferometry, and cue monitoring of composite laminates.



These proceedings are available from The International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE). It was published in May 2000 and has 304 pages. The book is priced at $55.00 for SPIE members, $70.00 for SPIE Technical group members, and $75.00 for nonmembers.



 


 


Nondestructive Evaluation of Aging Aircraft, Airports, and Aerospace Hardware IV, Proceedings of SPIE, Volume 394


By Ajit K. Mal


Twenty-three papers are presented in this volume covering such topics as crack propagation in composites, ultrasonic evaluation of composites, eddy current evaluation of turbine blades, acoustic emission testing, health monitoring, and a technology assessment of MEMS for NDE and condition-based maintenance.



These proceedings are available from The International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE). It was published in May 2000 and has 232 pages. The book is priced at $50.00 for SPIE members, $60.00 for SPIE Technical group members, and $65.00 for nonmembers.



 


Nondestructive Evaluation of Highways, Utilities, and Pipelines IV, Proceedings of SPIE, Volume 3995


By A. Emin Aktan and Stephen R. Gosselin


This volume of 59 papers covers topics such as lifetime maintenance of aging highway bridges, long-term monitoring of an all-composite bridge, health monitoring, acoustic emission monitoring of cracks in steel bridge members, monitoring and displacement measurement using GPS, use of smart materials and systems in bridge health monitoring, and damage detection in concrete using Lamb waves



These proceedings are available from The International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE). It was published in May 2000 and has 632 pages. The book is priced at $95.00 for SPIE members, $115.00 for SPIE Technical group members, and $125.00 for nonmembers.



 


Nondestructive Testing, Volume 3.03


By American Society for Testing and Materials


This volume features 163 of the latest standards on nondestructive testing of engineering materials, structures, and assemblies to detect flaws and characterize materials. Subjects include radiography, magnetic particle and liquid penetration examination, acoustic emission, ultrasonic, electromagnetic, and leak testing. Other headings in this volume include infrared methods, nondestructive testing agencies, and metals sorting and identification



This volume is available from the American Society for Testing Materials at www.astm.org It was published in November 2000 and has 1090 pages. The book, also available as a


CD-ROM, is priced at $164.00 in North America and $180.00 elsewhere.



 


MEMS and MOEMS Technologies and Applications


By Prosenjit Raichoudhury


Cost, size, speed weight, and precision are driving miniaturization of mechanical systems. This detailed look at MEMS (micro-electromechanical systems) and MOEMS (micro-optoelactromechanical systems) design and process may be used as a reference of textbook.



This book is available from The International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE) at www.spie.org It was published in November 2000 and has 517 pages. The book is priced at $70.00 for SPIE members, $80.00 for SPIE Technical group members, and $88.00 for nonmembers.



 


7. Meetings/Symposia/Conferences



March 4-8


SPIE 6th Annual International Symposium on NDE for Health Monitoring and Diagnostics


Newport Beach Marriott Hotel and Tennis Club, Newport Beach, California, USA.


Contact: SPIE, P.O. Box 10, Bellingham, Washington 98227-0010, USA.


Phone: (360) 676-3290. Fax: (360) 647-1445. E-mail: spie@spie.org


Website: www.spie.org



March 26-27


ASTM Symposium on Composite Materials: Testing, Design, and Acceptance Criteria


Hyatt Regency, Pheonix, Arizona, USA. Contact: Dr. Abdul-Hamid Zureick, School of Civil Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0355, USA.


Phone: (404) 894-2294 Fax: (404) 894-0211. E-mail azureick@ce.gatech.edu or Dr. Alan T. Nettles, NASA, Marchall Space Flight Center, ED34, Huntsville, Alabama 35812, USA. Phone: (804) 864-8503. Fax: (804) 864- 8911. E-mail: alan.nettles@msfc.nasa.gov



March 26-30


ASNT Spring Conference and 10th Annual Research Symposium


Denver Mariott Tech Center, Denver, Colorado, USA. Contact: American Society of Nondestructive Testing (ASNT), 1711 Arlingate Lane, P.O. Box 28518, Columbus, Ohio 43228-0518,USA. Phone: 1-800-222-2768 (USA/Canada only), (614) 274-6003. Fax: (614) 274-6899. Website: www.asnt.org



April 2-5


55th Meeting of the Society for Machinery Failure Prevention Technology (MFPT)


Ramada plaza resort Oceanfront Hotel, Virginia Beach, Virginia, USA. Theme: New Frontiers in Integrated Diagnostics and Prognostics. Contact: Henry or Sallie Pusey, 4193 Sudley Road, Haymarket, Virginia 20169-2420, USA. Phone: (703) 754-2234. Fax: (703) 754-9743. Email: hcpusey@ix.netcom.com Website: www.mfpt.com



April 23-25


7th NDE Topical Conference


Sheraton Gunter Hotel, San Antonio, Texas, USA. Sponsored by ASME with ASNT. Contact: Prof. Corinne Darvennes, Tennessee Technological University, Box 5014, Cookeville, Tennessee 38505, USA. Phone: (931) 372-3253. E-mail: Cdarvennes@tntech.edu Website: www.asme.org/conf/nde/



April 23-27


13th International Conference on Wear of Materials (WOM 2001)


Vancouver, British Columbia. For further information please contact: Amy Hill,


Phone: 44 (0) 186-5843958 E-mail: a.richardson@elsevier.co.uk



 


June 18-22


Second Pan-American Conference for Nondestructive Testing


Held in conjunction with the ASNT International Chemical and Petroleum Industry Inspection Technology (ICPIIT) VII Topical, Houston, Texas, USA. Contact: American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT), 1711 Arlington Lane, P.O. Box 28518, Columbus, Ohio 43228-0518, USA. Phone: 1-800-222-2768 (USA/Canada only), (614) 274-6899. Website: www.asnt.org



 


June 25-28


National Space & Missile Materials Symposium (NSMMS)


Marriott Hotel and the Monterey Convention Center, Monterey, California, USA. Contact: Space and Missile Materials Symposium, c/o Anteon Corporation, 5100 Springfield St., Suite 509, Dayton, Ohio 45431, USA. Phone: (973) 254-7950. Fax: (937) 253-2296.


E-mail: tcrews@anteon.com Website: www.usasymposium.com



 


 


June 26-29


33rd National Symposium on Fatigue and Fracture Mechanics


Grand Teton National Park, Moran, Wyoming, USA. Sponsored by American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Contact: Dr. Walter G Reuter, INEEL, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415-2218, USA. Phone: (208) 526-1708. Fax: (208) 526-0690


E-mail: wgr2@inel.gov Website: www.astm.org



July 4-6


9th International Conference and Exhibition: Structural Faults & Repair -2001


Kensington, London W8, England, July 4-6, 2001. Contact: Professor M.C. Forde, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Edinburgh, The King’s Buildings, Edinburg EH9 3JN, Scotland, UK. Fax: 44-(0)131-4528596.


E-mail: m.c.forde@ed.ac.uk



 


July 29-August 3


28th Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (2001 QNDE Conference)


Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine, USA. Contact: Heidi Long (registration).


Phone: (515) 294-8152. Fax: (515) 294-7771. E-mail: qnde2@cnde.iastate.edu or Linda Poore (other conference questions).Phone: (515)294-6770. E-mail: qnde@cnde.iastate.edu


Website: www.cnde.iastate.edu/qnde.html



August 7-10


IVth International Workshop: Advances in Signal Processing for NDE


University Laval, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. Contact: Prof. Xavier Maldague, Electrical and Computing Engineering Dept., University Laval, Quebec City, Canada


G1K 7P4. Phone: 418-656-2962 Fax: 418-656-3594. E-mail: maldagx@gel.ulaval.ca


Website: www.gel.ulaval.ca/quebec/



September 17-21


AGFA Tenth Asian-Pacific NDT Conference


Brisbane, Australia. The Australian Institute for Non-Destructive Testing invites you to celebrate the occasion of One Hundred Years since Federation of our Nation, by joining with us at the Tenth Asian-Pacific Conference on NDT. For further information contact: The Tenth A-PCNDT Conference Secretary, P.O. Box 47, Brisbane Market, Qld 4106, Australia. Phone: 61 3 9326 7550 Fax: 61 3 9326 7272 E-mail: aindt@immanet.asn.au



December 3-7


10th International Congress of Fracture


Honolulu Hawaii. The ICF Honor Lecture will be delivered by Professor Takeo Yolobori, Teikyo University, Japan. For more information visit conference website at www.elsevier.com/locate/icf10, or contact Amy Richardson, ICF 10 Conference Secretariat, Elsevier Science, The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford )X5 1 GB



 


Visual Inspection on the Internet



Despite all the advancements in NDT technology, visual inspection still remains one of the most common method for material examination. Information on visual examination can be obtained by browsing the Internet, and it is thought that the following URL’s of websites may be of interest to the non-destructive testing community.


The website of the New Zealand NDT Association offers information on a wide range of NDT methods and presents a good introduction to visual inspection (www.irl.cri.nz/~spedding/ndta/ndtavi00.htm) This homepage combines both an attractive design with an effective way to display and retrieve information on NDT. An interesting site is the NCSA Engineering with Visual Analysis homepage at www.ncsa.uiuc.edu:80/Pubs/access/93.2/VisualAnalysis.html, which describes the use of computer visualization to assist in the identification and characterization of flaws not always detectable by conventional NDT methods. One application of visual analysis is the stimulation and visualization f acoustic microscope measurements used to detect delamination in composite materials. Information on the NCSA’s current visual analysis applications and facilities can be obtained through the web. In addition, multimedia modules for material and engineering scientists can be obtained free of charge using anonymous ftp.


Results from the use of direct volume visualization techniques for automatic detection of explosives are presented at the Invision Technologies Inc. homepage. A description of this new method as well as both attractive and useful 3-D illustrations are accessible at www.crs4.it/~zip/bag.html The Tops NASA server provides technical information sheets on specific research projects, such as stroboscopic light sheet flow visualization technique for condition monitoring of helicopter rotors, and laser light sheet flow visualization technique. These technical references can be accessed by typing stroboscopic at the search engine at www.larc.nasa.gov:81/tag-www.larc.nasa.gov/tops-index/ A request form for further information, publications or technical references is also available on-line for each technical information sheet. Another NASA- related source of information on visual inspection can be reached at http://robotics.jpl.nasa.gov/tasks/rsi/homepage.html This site offers a full description of machine vision system for automated visual service flaw detection on orbiting space platforms. Detailed information on an inspection robot remotely operated by an operator for both visual and non-visual inspections is also presented. An introduction to computer-integrated visual inspection for automatic examination of circuit boards. as well as a list of relevant publications, is presented at www.isl.ece.arizona.edu/~chrisy/civi.html Similarly, information on automated geometric visual inspection of 3D objects can be obtained at http://arachnid.cs.cf.ac.uk/Dave/VIS_APP_LAB/subsection3_4_2.html


Although the homepage of the Visual Inspection Technologies Inc.


(www.v-i-t-.com/vit) appears to be limited to the of products and services offered in the field of remote visual inspection, it is well designed and advertises video-imagescopes, fiberscopes, and boroscopes. However, there is an evident lack of technical information which would be useful to the NDT engineer. Another commercial site on visual inspection is that of UXR at www.fbsolutions.com/uxr/ Unlike the previous one, the UXR homepage allows one to obtain technical information on a wide range of NDT equipment such as boroscopes and fiberscopes, and offers very competitive prices. The time taken to download images of the equipment is the only drawback of this site. Remote visual inspection is relied upon for the detection, analysis, and documentation of defects normally inaccessible to the human eye. Olympus Systems equipment for remote visual inspection in complex machinery and inside pipes are presented at www.olympus.plus.at/olympus/ruis.html An application of visual inspection to the paper industry can be found at www.kochsiek.de/english/umroller.html, where technical data of a visual inspection winder to control quality of pre-printed material is described.


The website of the Center for Applied Optical Sciences at www.caos.amu.edu/ describes various research areas from holography to optical metrology, and is worth visiting by those interested in such topics and wishing to establish contact with other researchers. A well illustrated introduction on visual non-destructive testing on works of art is proposed by the Applied Optics Group of the University of L’Aquila http://ing.univaq.it/~laser/research/research.html One can learn of the use of holographic contouring techniques to locate and size defects on a fresco 1667 or a carving of the XIIIth century. A supercomputer analysis of holographic interferograms for displacement using the Fourier transform method is presented by D.L. Gould at www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/Edu/SuperQuest/new/proj4.html


The server of the Basic Industrial Research Laboratory of the Northwestern University in Illinois offers technical reports which cover a wide variety of subjects from the application of infrared and visual imaging for the inspection of protective coatings (www.iti.nwu.edu/pubs/tr10.html) to optical global bridge inspection techniques (www.iti.nusu.edu/pubs/shubit.html). Technical information on a D-sight surface inspection system to visually enhance signs of impact damage and interlayer corrosion on aircraft parts is accessible at www.netcore.ca/~ diffract/dais.htm. The Optical Metrology Laboratory at the Center for Applied Optics has extensive facilities for analysis of complex surfaces, measurement of ultra-smooth surfaces, and precision coatings. Optical scattering and other standard tools, such as stylus and non-contact profilometers, are available to provide analysis in several formats http://eb-p5.eb.uah.edu/ose/node25.html) Modal and vibration analysis of bonded and composite structures can be carried out using holographic interferometry as described at the homepage of the Polaris Research Group at http://w3.gwis.com:80/~polaris/whatis.html.


The Optical Digest newsletter is an electronic periodical, supported and administered by the SPIE, which provides information on topics such as computer-aided photo-elastic stress analysis, forthcoming meetings and job opportunities. One can download this newsletter at www.spie.org/otd, or subscribe for free e-mail delivery. It is also worth consulting the Cordis site to be aware of current NDT research projects carried out through the Brite-Euram scheme, including topics such as pulsed digital holography and shearography (www.cordis.lu:80/brite-euram/src/1147.htm). Finally, information on a ‘futuristic’ project for holographic full-body security scanning can be enjoyably read at www.utopia.com:80/mailings/rree/Holographic.Full-Body.Security.Scanning.html.


This Article is available on the British Institute of NDT’s website as a PDF file with hot-links incorporated, facilitating easy access to the site mentioned. Visit the site at www.powertech.co.uk/bindt and access the PDF file through the section devoted to INSIGHT.



 


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